Setting up a CI host to deploy a static website like this one is really
easy and makes writing posts about as simple as editing a wiki: write,
read-proof, and save. CI then takes over and generates the HTML, checks
the links, runs doctest for Python, and deploys the website.
I started this blog in December 2014 and wrote a few more posts in 2015
or 2016. I then stopped for a while. My biggest hindrance (felt or
real) was administrating the website. However, CI can easily take care
of the publication.
Here is a step by step tutorial on setting up a web server and a CI
server to publish a static website.
The prerequisites are that the website builds locally and the web server
I am personally using github, Circle CI and a server by Digital Ocean
but this tutorial can be adapted to other services. For the blog
itself, I am using Pelican but here again, other static website
generators are just as good.
Server: Add a CI user with limited access
CI must have access to the web server in order to copy the generated
HTML files to the webroot. However, a good safety measure is to give CI
its own limited account.
So, let us install rssh (a restricted shell) on the web server
# aptitude install rssh rsync
and uncomment rsync in /etc/rssh.conf.
Now, we can add a circleci user to the web server with
# useradd --groups www-data --shell /usr/bin/rssh circleci
This user is now able to put files onto the web server over rsync. Now,
we should authorize circleci to write to the web root,
# chown circleci:www-data /var/www/example.com/public_html
# chmod g+s /var/www/example.com/public_html
where example.com is the website. That is, synss.me in my case.
Local: Generate a new SSH key for the CI user
Back to our regular computer, we now generate an ssh key pair for
our circleci user.
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C "email@example.com"
Save without password to $HOMEfirstname.lastname@example.org_rsa.
Local: Test SSH access
Let us check that everything is working by copying a file to the web
root on behalf of circleci:
$ echo 'ok' >> ok.txt
$ ssh-add ~/.email@example.com_rsa
$ rsync -e "ssh" ok.txt firstname.lastname@example.org://var/www/example.com/public_html/
Now, ok.txt should be accessible at http://example.com/ok.txt.
CI: Add the private key
We still need to configure the CI server to use the SSH key. On
circleci.com, go to dashboard ->
projects -> <PROJECT> -> SSH Permissions --> Add SSH key and add the
private key. Circle CI should now display the fingerprint of the key.
Local: Edit .circleci/config
We let the CI config know about the key. After something like:
name: generate site
add (from add_ssh_keys)
- "de:ad:be:ef..." # The actual fingerprint
Note that making the fingerprint public is not a security risk.
Let CI deploy the website as we push to the master branch:
name: publish site
if [ "$CIRCLE_BRANCH" = "master" ]; then
We need to add -oStrictHostKeyChecking=no to the rsync_upload stanza
of the Pelican Makefile. Otherwise, SSH would prompt CI to accept the
That's it. After this one time setup, Circle CI automatically deploys
and publishes the articles pushed to the master branch.